In the traditional Tribal government, the head Chief presided over approximately fifteen villages. Each village had a population of at least 1,500 and was governed by four to five War Chiefs, one or more Spiritual Leader, a Medicine Person, and a Ceremonial Leader.
On September 14, 1970, the Tribe adopted a Constitution and bylaws, and the traditional system of government was replaced with a Tribal Council. The Council consists of five elected officials:
- Vice- Chairman
- Secretary/ Treasurer
- Two Councilman-at-Large
The Chitimacha Tribe, as a sovereign nation, shares a unique government-to-government relationship with the United States.